Food Production and Management is Chapter 6 taken from the JKBOSE textbook of Science for students of Class 8th. In the previous post, I provided you with Questions and Answers for Chapter 5 Sound. This post is about the Food Production and Management Class 8 Question Answers. Before we move on to solutions you must have your basics clear. So, let me begin by giving you a brief overview of what you have studied in this chapter.
Food Production and Management Class 8 Question Answers
Overview of Chapter
Since time immemorial man has been engaged in farming. Even today about 70% of our population is engaged in agriculture. Agriculture is defined as the study of science and the art of producing plants and animals which are useful to man. It provides us with food, clothing, shelter and other needs in our life. If you go through this blog you will get complete knowledge about JKBOSE Solutions for Chapter 6 Food Production and Management. You have studied about following topics in detail in this chapter:
- CROPS PLANTS.
- BEST PRACTICES OF CROP PRODUCTION
(1) Right kind of soil.
(2) Selection of the right seeds.
(4) Raising seedlings in the nursery and transplanting.
(7) Crop Protection.
(8) Harvesting and harvest festivals.
(9) Threshing and winnowing.
(10) Storing of grains.
- IMPROVEMENT OF CROPS
(1) Plant Breeding.
(2) Soil Improvement.
(a) Crop Rotation.
(b) Mixed Cropping.
(c) Field Fallow.
(3) Protection from Weeds and Pests.
- FOOD FROM ANIMALS.
(3) Fisheries (Pisciculture).
I. Name the following:
1. Five requirements essential for obtaining good crop production.
Ans. The five requirements for a good crop include the right kind of soil, good quality seeds, proper irrigation of crops, proper manuring, and protection from weeds and insects using weedicides and insecticides.
2. Two types of fertilizers.
Ans. NPK(Nitrogen phosphate and potash), CAN ( Calcium ammonium nitrate), and Urea are some types of fertilizers.
3. Some chemicals are used to protect crops from insect pests and weeds.
Ans. Malathion, dysiston and dimecron (insecticides), DDT, BHC and aldrin (pesticides) and simazine, 2,4-D and Glyphosphate are some chemicals used to control insect pests and weeds.
4. Some animal products.
Ans. Milk, egg, meat, chicken, mutton, ghee, butter, and honey are some animal products.
5. Members of a colony of bees.
Ans. A colony of honey bees has:-
a) Workers (sterile females), b) Drones (sterile males) c) Queen ( fertile female)
II. Fill in the blanks:
- A khurpi is used to remove weeds from the soil.
- A clod crusher is used to trowel the soil by breaking the lumps of soil after preliminary ploughing.
- Kharif crops are sown during the months of June-July.
- Paddy or vegetable seeds are not sown directly into the soil.
- Rabi crops are harvested during the months of March or April.
- The method of taking the seedling from the nursery to the main field is known as the transplanting field.
- Pearls are used in jewellery.
- Honey contains 17% water and 78% sugar with minerals.
- The hen houses are called Pens.
- Murrah and Jaffarabadi are well-known breeds of buffaloes.
III. Answer the following in only one word or figure.
- What is the process of turning and loosening the soil called?
Ans Ploughing or tilling.
- Which implement is used for tilling the soil?
Ans. Plough or tractor.
- Which instrument is used for breaking the large lumps of soil?
Ans. Clod Crusher.
- What is the implement used for sowing called?
Ans Seed Drill.
- What is the top part of the drill called?
Ans. Seed Bowl.
- What is an egg-laying bird called?
Ans. Broody Hen.
- Name the member of the bee colony.
Ans. Workers, Drones and Queen.
- Which material is used to cover the floor of a hen-house?
- Which is the common food of poultry chicken?
Ans. Grains, Oil Cakes.
- Which bee is responsible for laying eggs?
Ans. Queen Bee.
IV. Give the scientific reasons for the following:
- Grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits should be used in our daily life.
Ans. Grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits should be used in our daily life because these are good sources of proteins, vitamins and minerals needed by our body for proper growth and development.
- The soil should be loosened before seeds are sown?
Ans. The loosening of soil is necessary before sowing because it aerates the soil and also young roots of growing plants penetrate the loose soil easily.
- Seeds should be sown at proper depth?
Ans. Seeds should be sown at the proper depth to provide them with conditions suitable for their germination like sunlight, water and nutrients etc.
- Fruits and vegetables should be washed properly before eating?
Ans. It is necessary to wash fruits and vegetables properly before using them because they may contain the coating of insecticides or pesticides.
- Grains are dried thoroughly before they are stored?
Ans. The grains are dried thoroughly to remove moisture from them which may promote the growth of fungus or mould on grains which will make the grains unfit for use.
V. Answer the following questions:
- What are the requirements of farming which would lead to high yields of crops?
Ans. The basic requirements of farming which would lead to high yields of crops are:-
- Right kind of soil.
- Good varieties of seeds.
- Use of manures.
- Better irrigation facilities.
- Use of chemicals (pesticides and insecticides) to prevent crops.
- Better agricultural tools.
- What is tilling? How it is done?
Ans. The process of loosening or turning the soil is called tilling or ploughing. The ploughing of soil is done with the help of a plough, tiller or tractor.
- Write a short note on the process of sowing.
Ans. It is the process of putting seeds in the soil. There are two basic methods of sowing seeds. The first is manual and the second method is by using machines. In the manual method, seeds are scattered in the field by hand. This method is called broadcasting. In developed countries broadcasting is also done with help of a machine called a broadcaster. Nowadays seeds are sown with the help of a seed drill.
- What are manures? Discuss their important types.
Ans. Manures are organic substances obtained from the wastes of plants and animals which provide nutrients to the plants. They provide a lot of humus to the soil. The important types of manures are:
- a) Farmyard manure: – It is the most common and valuable manure used by farmers. It consists of remains of straw, leaves and excreta of cattle.
- b) Green Manure: – It is the process of turning or ploughing green plants into the soil for improving the physical structure and fertility of the soil.
- c) Compost: – It is a rotten mixture of all the cattle shed waste and available refuse. It can be used as manure.
- What are fertilizers? Explain its importance.
Ans. These are chemical substances rich in particular nutrients essential for the growth of crop plants. These are easily dissolved in water and so are helpful in providing nutrients quickly to the plants.
- What is broadcasting and transplanting?
Ans. The scattering of seeds in the field by hand or machine (broadcaster) is called broadcasting. The process of transferring the seedling from the nursery to the main field is known as transplanting.
- What is the difference between manure and fertilizer?
|1. It is a natural substance obtained from plant and animal waste.||1. It is a chemical or inorganic substance.|
|2. Manures can be prepared in fields.||2. These are prepared in factories.|
|3. They have less quantity of plant nutrients.||3. They are very rich in plant nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.|
|4. They do not dissolve in water so are slowly absorbed by plants.||4. They are easily soluble in water so are quickly absorbed by plants.|
|5. They provide a lot of humus (organic matter) to the soil.||5. They do not add humus to the soil.|
|6. E.g. FYM, compost, sea manure, green manure.||6. E.g. NPK, CAN, urea, superphosphate.|
- Why are weeds harmful? What is used to remove weeds?
Ans. Weeds are undesirable plants which are harmful because they compete with crop plants for water, nutrients and sunlight and grow at the expense of crop plants. These are removed either manually or by using weedicides.
- What are insecticides? Give examples.
Ans. These are the chemicals used to kill insects, their larvae and eggs without affecting the crop plants. Examples. Dimecron, malathion, parathion etc.
- How do insecticides protect crop plants?
Ans. The insecticides protect the crop plants by killing insects, and their larvae which are harmful to crop plants.
- Which are the two main seasons in India for cultivating crops?
Ans. The two main seasons for cultivating crops in India are: –
- Kharif season (June – October).
- Rabi season (November – April)
- Name some harvest festivals in India.
Ans. Pongal, Baisakhi, Holi, Diwali, Nabanya and Bihu are some harvest festivals in India.
- Name four factors responsible for the improvement of a crop.
Ans. The four main factors responsible for the improvement of a crop are: –
- Improved soil fertility and better agricultural methods.
- Protection of crops against diseases and weeds.
- Better storage and transport facility.
- Use of better quality seeds (hybrid seeds).
- Write a short note on the process of harvesting.
Ans. It is the process in which fully matured or ripe crops are cut and collected from the fields. It is done either by hand using a sickle or by using a machine called a combine or harvester. Both the rabi and Kharif crops are harvested at the end of their seasons. There are some festivals which are associated with the harvest season in India.
- Why does a farmer rotate crops in the field?
Ans. It is necessary to rotate the crops in the field for maintaining the fertility of the soil. This process is termed crop rotation. The growing of the same crop year after in the field makes the soil deficient in certain nutrients which are used by the particular crop. To prevent this loss of nutrients crop rotation is done.
- What do you understand by mixed cropping?
Ans. It is the method of growing two crops with different maturing times together in the same field. It prevents time and labour and also the waste material of a crop can be utilized by another crop. Example. Mixed cropping of groundnut and cotton.
- Why are fields sometimes allowed to remain fallow?
Ans. The fields are sometimes allowed to remain fallow to promote the growth of microorganisms and replenishment of nutrients in the soil.
- List the importance of fish in our life.
Ans. The various importance of fish in our life is as under.
- It is one of the major sources of animal protein.
- It is a source of food.
- Fish oil is used for various purposes.
- Corals are used in decoration.
- What is the nutrient value of honey?
Ans. Honey has 17% of water and 78% of sugar with minerals and enzymes.
- How are domesticated animals useful to us?
Ans. Domesticated animals are beneficial to us in many ways. They provide us with milk, egg, meat leather etc. The bullocks were used for ploughing the fields. Domesticated horses and mares are used for carrying goods in areas where there is no road connectivity. Domesticated dogs are helpful in protection.
That’s all about Food Production and Management Class 8 Question Answers. Hope it has helped. Do share your views about this post in the comment section below.